Así amanecieron las calles de Turquía tras intentona de golpe de estado (FOTOS)

 

Golpe de Estado en Turquia (64)

El presidente turco Recep Tayyip Erdogan ascendió al poder apoyándose en una estrategia populista evidente. Exjugador profesional de fútbol y exalcalde de Estambul, organizó triunfos electorales aplastantes para un partido cuya devota base musulmana se mofaba de la antigua clase dominante laica. En el puesto por más de una década, cada vez se le acusa más de tener tendencias autócratas.

AP

El fallido intento de golpe de Estado en su contra sólo parece haberle inyectado nuevo vigor a su liderazgo, al menos a corto plazo.

Erdogan ya ha sufrido reveses en el pasado. Fue obligado a dejar su puesto como alcalde de Estambul y pasó cuatro meses en la cárcel en 1999 por leer un poema islámico que hizo enfurecer a los tribunales de la época, firmemente seglares. Pero esa experiencia solamente pareció lustrar sus credenciales como un hombre del pueblo.

Se convirtió en primer ministro en 2003, tras promover la idea de Turquía como un modelo de gobierno democrático a seguir para los países musulmanes e impulsar su candidatura para ingresar a la Unión Europea, una campaña que desde entonces se ha ido a pique. Sin embargo, con el tiempo algunos turcos se preocuparon cada vez más por los presuntos esfuerzos de Erdogan para imponer el islam al pueblo turco y la represión sobre los que eran considerados opositores, todo lo cual generó temores de que el respeto a los derechos humanos estuviese retrocediendo y de que se estuviera violando la libertad de expresión.

Mientras se estaba desarrollando el intento de golpe de Estado, Erdogan difundió un mensaje de desafío desde la aplicación FaceTime en un iPhone, una estrategia que posteriormente atrajo comentarios perplejos de los turcos, que recordaron los pasados esfuerzos del gobierno por restringir el uso de YouTube y otras redes sociales.

Por el momento, Erdogan está en la cresta de la ola de la indignación pública por el intento de golpe de Estado. Ha prometido que los que lo organizaron pagarán un precio muy alto, y ha planteado la posibilidad de que haya purgas en el ejército.

“Sale de esto enormemente fortalecido”, dijo Howard Eissenstat, profesor adjunto de historia de Medio Oriente en la Universidad San Lorenzo en Canton, Nueva York.

“Esto ha movilizado de nuevo a su base, la cual estaba cansándose de él. Al menos le dio un momento en el que él unificó todos los elementos de la sociedad en contra de esta amenaza”, agregó Eissenstat.

A police officer holds a weapon as people react after they took over military position on the Bosphorus bridge in Istanbul on July 16, 2016. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan battled to regain control over Turkey on July 16, 2016 after a coup bid by discontented soldiers, as signs grew that the most serious challenge to his 13 years of dominant rule was faltering. After a night of drama and bloodshed, at least 90 people had died and more than 1,150 people were wounded, according to state-run news agency Andalou. / AFP PHOTO / Yasin AKGUL
AFP PHOTO / Yasin AKGUL
This picture taken on July 16, 2016 shows abandonned tanks in the street after police took over the military position at the Anatolian side at Uskudar in Istanbul. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan urged Turks to remain on the streets on July 16, 2016, as his forces regained control after a spectacular coup bid by discontented soldiers that claimed more than 250 lives. Describing the attempted coup as a "black stain" on Turkey's democracy, Yildirim said that 161 people had been killed in the night of violence and 1,440 wounded. / AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
EDITORS NOTE: Graphic content / A child walks next to a police officer on a tank after the military position was taken over at the Anatolian side at Uskudar in Istanbul on July 16, 2016, following an attempt by discontented soldiers to seize power from President Recep Tayyip Erdogan that claimed more than 250 lives. After the bloodiest challenge to his 13-year autocratic rule, Erdogan urged his backers to stay on the streets to prevent a possible "flare-up" of yesterday's chaos in the strategic NATO member of 80 million people. / AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
Turkish police officer (R) embrace a man on a tank after the military position was taken over at the Anatolian side at Uskudar in Istanbul on July 16, 2016. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan urged Turks to remain on the streets on July 16, 2016, as his forces regained control after a spectacular coup bid by discontented soldiers that claimed more than 250 lives. Describing the attempted coup as a "black stain" on Turkey's democracy, Yildirim said that 161 people had been killed in the night of violence and 1,440 wounded. / AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
This picture taken on July 16, 2016 shows a tank stucks on a median strip as Turkish police officers walk around it after they took over a military position at the Anatolian side at Uskudar in Istanbul on July 16, 2016. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan urged Turks to remain on the streets on July 16, 2016, as his forces regained control after a spectacular coup bid by discontented soldiers that claimed more than 250 lives. Describing the attempted coup as a "black stain" on Turkey's democracy, Yildirim said that 161 people had been killed in the night of violence and 1,440 wounded. / AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
People inspect damage after the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was bombed by rebel jets, on July 16, 2016 in Ankara. July 15 putsch bid began with rebel F-16 jets screaming low over rooftops in Ankara, soldiers and tanks taking to the streets and multiple explosions throughout the night in the capital as well as the biggest city Istanbul. With at least 2,839 soldiers already detained in a relentless round-up over the coup plot, the authorities blamed the conspiracy on Erdogan's arch enemy, the US-based cleric Fethullah Gulen. / AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
A man walks through rubble after the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was bombed by rebel jets, on July 16, 2016 in Ankara. July 15 putsch bid began with rebel F-16 jets screaming low over rooftops in Ankara, soldiers and tanks taking to the streets and multiple explosions throughout the night in the capital as well as the biggest city Istanbul. With at least 2,839 soldiers already detained in a relentless round-up over the coup plot, the authorities blamed the conspiracy on Erdogan's arch enemy, the US-based cleric Fethullah Gulen. / AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
A picture taken on July 16, 2016 shows heavy damage at the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara after he was bombed by rebel jets. July 15 putsch bid began with rebel F-16 jets screaming low over rooftops in Ankara, soldiers and tanks taking to the streets and multiple explosions throughout the night in the capital as well as the biggest city Istanbul. With at least 2,839 soldiers already detained in a relentless round-up over the coup plot, the authorities blamed the conspiracy on Erdogan's arch enemy, the US-based cleric Fethullah Gulen. / AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
People run away from tanks after taking over military position on the Bosphorus bridge in Istanbul on July 16, 2016, following an attempt by discontented soldiers to seize power from President Recep Tayyip Erdogan that claimed more than 250 lives. After the bloodiest challenge to his 13-year autocratic rule, Erdogan urged his backers to stay on the streets to prevent a possible "flare-up" of yesterday's chaos in the strategic NATO member of 80 million people. / AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
AFP PHOTO / BULENT KILIC
People look at a destroyed car as they march from Kizilay square towards the Turkish General Staff building in Ankara, on July 16, 2016, following a failed coup attempt. Turkish authorities said they had regained control of the country on July 16 after thwarting a coup attempt by discontented soldiers to seize power from President Recep Tayyip Erdogan that claimed more than 250 lives. / AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
Members of the public cheer as Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yildirim (not pictured) speaks after a meeting with the Turkish Speaker of Parliament at the Turkish Grand Assembly in Ankara on July 16, 2016 following a failed coup attempt. Turkish authorities said they had regained control of the country on July 16 after thwarting a coup attempt by discontented soldiers to seize power from President Recep Tayyip Erdogan that claimed more than 250 lives. / AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
AFP PHOTO / ADEM ALTAN
TUrcos reunidos ante un auto quemado en Estambul, el sábado 16 de julio de 2016. El presidente de Turquía, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, declaró el sábado de madrugada que tenía el control del país tras un intento de golpe de Estado. (AP Foto/Emrah Gurel)
AP Foto/Emrah Gurel
Turcos celebrando mientras agentes de policía leales al gobierno aseguran una zona de Estambul, el sábado 16 de julio de 2016. El presidente de Turquía, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, declaró el sábado de madrugada que tenía el control del país tras un intento de golpe de Estado. (AP Foto/Emrah Gurel)
AP Foto/Emrah Gurel
People sit amid rubble in Ankara, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
REUTERS/Stringer
A police armored vehicle uses a water cannon to disperse anti-goverment forces on Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
People take selfies after soldiers involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Yagiz Karahan TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
REUTERS/Yagiz Karahan
A civilian beats a soldier after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
REUTERS/Murad Sezer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
Policemen protect a soldier (C, R) from the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
REUTERS/Murad Sezer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
Soldiers push each other to board a bus to escape the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
REUTERS/Murad Sezer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
A soldier protects himself from the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
Soldiers push each other to board a bus to escape the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
Policemen stand on a military vehicle after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
Soldiers are beaten by the mob as they board a bus after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
A policeman protects soldiers from the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
A portrait of Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan is seen on a building in Ankara, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Tumay Berkin
REUTERS/Tumay Berkin
Policemen protect a soldier from the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
Policemen protect a soldier from the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
Women stand behind a military vehicle in front of Sabiha Airport, in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Baz Ratner
REUTERS/Baz Ratner
A policeman checks a slodier beaten by the mob after troops involved in the coup surrendered on the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
A woman feeds pigeons in front of the Republic Monument at Taksim Square in Istanbul after an attempted coup in Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Kemal Aslan
REUTERS/Kemal Aslan
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A man stands inside the destroyed parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
REUTERS/Stringer
People walk inside the damaged parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
REUTERS/Stringer
Picture shows the damaged constructions of the parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
REUTERS/Stringer
Workers clear the rubble inside the damaged parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
REUTERS/Stringer
Surrendered Turkish soldiers who were involved in the coup are beaten by civilians on Bosphorus bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
REUTERS/Stringer
A police officer protects urrendered Turkish soldiers who were involved in the coup on Bosphorus bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
REUTERS/Stringer
Surrendered Turkish soldiers who were involved in the coup are surrounded by people on Bosphorus bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES.
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Surrendered Turkish soldiers who were involved in the coup are beaten by a civilian on Bosphorus bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVES. TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
REUTERS/Stringer
People look through broken windows of the parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Baz Ratner
REUTERS/Baz Ratner
People wait for Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan to appear for a speech outside his residence in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REFILE - CORRECTING CITY - People walk past Turkish police officers sitting on a Leopard 2 tank in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Baz Ratner
REUTERS/Baz Ratner
REFILE - CORRECTING CITY - A Turkish police officer sits on a ACV-15 Armored Vehicle in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Baz Ratner
REUTERS/Baz Ratner
An Armored Vehicle with portraits of Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan is parked outside the parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Baz Ratner
REUTERS/Baz Ratner
People stand around a crater outside the parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Baz Ratner
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People wave flags as they wait for Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan to appear for a speech outside his residence in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
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A man stands on a tree as he waits for Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan to appear for a speech outside his residence in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
A man mourns over the coffin holding body of police officer Nedip Cengiz Eker during a funeral ceremony in Marmaris, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Kenan Gurbuz
REUTERS/Kenan Gurbuz
Women mourn over the coffin holding body of police officer Nedip Cengiz Eker during a funeral ceremony in Marmaris, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Kenan Gurbuz
REUTERS/Kenan Gurbuz
A relative mourns over the coffin holding body of police officer Nedip Cengiz Eker during a funeral ceremony in Marmaris, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Kenan Gurbuz
REUTERS/Kenan Gurbuz
People try to take pictures of Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan walking through the crowd of supporters, as a security officer stands on the roof in Istanbul, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Murad Sezer
REUTERS/Murad Sezer
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Supporters of Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan hold a giant Turkish flag during a demonstration outside parliament building in Ankara, Turkey, July 16, 2016. REUTERS/Osman Orsal TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
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