Indígenas warao huyen de la crisis en Venezuela y se lanzan a un futuro incierto en Brasil (fotos)

Nov 23, 2017 2:16 pm
Publicado en: Destacados, Nacionales
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, bathes at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indígenas warao en un refugio en Pacaraima, estado Roraima , en Brasil (REUTERS/Nacho Doce

 

Indígenas de la tribu de los warao que viajaron cientos de kilómetros para huir de la crisis económica en Venezuela han quedado atrapados en un limbo cerca de la frontera con Brasil, después de ser removidos de las calles de la ciudad amazónica de Manaos.

Movidos por el hambre y la enfermedad que golpean su hábitat tradicional en el delta del río Orinoco, en el noreste de Venezuela, más de 1.200 integrantes de la tribu warao se mudaron al norte de Brasil, donde muchos de ellos se vieron forzados a mendigar en las calles.

Autoridades, organizaciones no gubernamentales e iglesias en Brasil les ofrecieron refugio temporal en la frontera, pero el futuro de los warao sigue siendo nebuloso. La tribu insiste en que no volverá a Venezuela, donde la profunda recesión ha provocado escasez de productos básicos bajo el Gobierno socialista del presidente Nicolás Maduro.

“Los niños estaban muriendo de enfermedades en Venezuela. No hay medicinas, no hay comida, no hay ayuda”, dijo Rita Nieves, una cacique de la matriarcal tribu warao.

Muchos integrantes de la tribu aún están realizando el arduo viaje. Nieves usaba sus mejores ropas para cruzar de regreso a Venezuela a sepultar a un bebé de tres meses, que acaba de morir en los brazos de su madre durante el largo del viaje de 1.000 kilómetros en bus hasta Brasil.

“Estamos quedándonos aquí porque las cosas no han cambiado en Venezuela”, dijo la mujer, sentada en una bodega convertida en habitación para 220 indígenas warao en el pequeño municipio fronterizo de Pacaraima.

Los niños juegan en medio de decenas de hamacas colgadas de estructuras metálicas instaladas por la agencia para los refugiados de la ONU, ACNUR. Afuera, las mujeres cocinaban con leña y los hombres escuchaban a su chamán hablando sobre las virtudes de una palma que se utiliza para tener cestas y hamacas mientras fumaba un cigarro de paja.

Los warao han vivido durante siglos en el delta del Orinoco, pero algunos comenzaron a abandonar ese lugar cuando el suministro de pescado se agotó por el desvío de las aguas en favor de las exportaciones venezolanas de mineral de hierro y bauxita.

Muchos se fueron a ciudades venezolanas a vender artesanías y mendigar en las calles. Sin embargo, cuando la economía entró en crisis, a partir del año pasado comenzaron a trasladarse a Brasil a menudo apenas caminando sin documentos a través de la frontera.

“Ya estaban mendigando en Venezuela, pero aquellos que les daban dinero ahora están pidiendo ayuda para ellos mismos”, dice la Hermana Clara, una misionera de la organización humanitaria brasileña Fraternidade que posee dos refugios para los warao. “¿Quién va a comprar artesanías a los warao en una Venezuela en crisis?”, se pregunta.

Durmiendo en la calle

En torno a medio millar de indígenas warao llegaron a Manaos el año pasado. En los semáforos pedían dinero o vendían artesanías a los conductores. Muchos dormían a orillas de una carretera hasta que las autoridades quisieron detener la mendicidad y los llevaron a refugios que no les gustaron.

Algunos avanzaron hacia las ciudades amazónicas de Santarém y Belém, mientras que otros volvieron a los pueblos fronterizos, desde donde pueden ir y venir a su tierra en el delta cada vez que reúnan suficiente dinero.

“Comenzaron a quedarse aquí, durmiendo en las calles, y provocaron una emergencia humanitaria”, dijo la secretaria de servicios sociales de Pacaraima, Isabel Davila.

La ciudad acondicionó una bodega abandonada con baños, duchas y una cocina con fondos facilitados por la iglesia mormona. Tal como un refugio similar en la cercana ciudad de Boa Vista que alberga a 500 warao, son lugares temporales donde pueden permanecer mientras legalizan su situación para poder trabajar, dijo Davila.

Pero la cacique Rita no tiene planes de moverse. El alcalde de Pacaraima prometió tierras para cultivo y materiales para fabricar artesanías, dijo la mujer, y ella quiere que los niños warao aprendan portugués.

Por Anthony Boadle/Reuters

An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, makes bread at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, makes bread at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Members of the indigenous Warao people from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, make food at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Members of the indigenous Warao people from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, make food at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, sleeps on a hammock at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, sleeps on a hammock at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, bathes her baby in a bucket at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, bathes her baby in a bucket at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, plays in front of hammocks hanging from metal structures provided by the United Nations refugee agency UNHCR at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, plays in front of hammocks hanging from metal structures provided by the United Nations refugee agency UNHCR at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, receives nebulizer therapy by his mother at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, receives nebulizer therapy by his mother at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, play on hammocks at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, play on hammocks at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao women from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, cut fishes in front of tents at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao women from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, cut fishes in front of tents at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, washes clothes at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, washes clothes at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, hangs clothes at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, hangs clothes at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
A missionary from Brazil-based international humanitarian organization Fraternidade, plays with indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
A missionary from Brazil-based international humanitarian organization Fraternidade, plays with indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, stands next to a tent at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, stands next to a tent at a shelter in Boa Vista, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
A missionary from Brazil-based international humanitarian organization Fraternidade, walks next to indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
A missionary from Brazil-based international humanitarian organization Fraternidade, walks next to indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 18, 2017. Picture taken November 18, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, makes food next to her family at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, makes food next to her family at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, play on hammocks at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao children from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, play on hammocks at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
The logo of United Nations refugee agency UNHCR is seen on metal structures they provided and where hammocks hang for members of the indigenous Warao people from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
The logo of United Nations refugee agency UNHCR is seen on metal structures they provided and where hammocks hang for members of the indigenous Warao people from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, smiles next to food at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao child from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, smiles next to food at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
Indigenous Warao people from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, stand next to food at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce TEMPLATE OUT
Indigenous Warao people from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, stand next to food at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce TEMPLATE OUT
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, bottle-feeds her baby at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce
An indigenous Warao woman from the Orinoco Delta in eastern Venezuela, bottle-feeds her baby at a shelter in Pacaraima, Roraima state, Brazil November 15, 2017. Picture taken November 15, 2017. REUTERS/Nacho Doce



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